Ronzio, Robert A. (2003) in “Craving” [1]: A food craving is an intense desire to consume a specific food, stronger than simply normal hunger

To An Addictive Eating Pattern

According to Marcia Levin Pelchat [2] “It may be the way in which foods are consumed (e.g. alternating access and restriction) rather than their sensory properties that leads to an addictive eating pattern.[2]

[1] Ronzio, Robert A. (2003). “Craving”. The Encyclopedia of Nutrition and Good Health (2nd ed.). Facts on File. p. 176. ISBN 0-8160-4966-1.

[2] Levin Pelchat, Marcia (March 2009). “Food Addiction in Humans”. The Journal of Nutrition 139 (3): 620–622.


Daniel C. Javitt, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Psychiatry and Neuroscience: The special emphasis on the role of brain glutamate systems and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) –type glutamate receptors in health and disease[1]

Dr. Javitt’s research focuses on brain mechanisms of psychosis and other severe psychiatric disorders, with special emphasis on the role of brain glutamate systems and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) –type glutamate receptors in health and disease. Dr. Javitt was among the first to demonstrate a link between NMDA dysfunction and schizophrenia, and has been instrumental in developing glutamatergic theories of schizophrenia over the past 20 years. He was also among the first to test new classes of NMDA-based treatments for schizophrenia, including glycine, D-serine and glycine transport inhibitors, and has more recently initiated studies of NMDA receptor antagonists, such as ketamine and high-dose D-cycloserine in treatment of depression, and of brain stimulation methods, including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as an adjunct to cognitive remediation.
Dr. Javitt has published over 250 articles on topics relating to normal and abnormal brain function in serious psychiatric illness. He has received awards for his research from numerous organizations, including the American Psychiatric Association, American College of europsychopharmacology, Society for Biological Psychiatry, American College of Psychiatrists and the Child Welfare League of America. His work has also been featured in the PBS special “Prisoners of the Brain,” and Scientific American.

His research is supported by the National Institute for Mental Health, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Stanley Medical Research Institute, and other philanthropic organizations. He currently serves as associate editor of Schizophrenia Bulletin, and as an editorial board member for several prestigious journals including Schizophrenia Research and the American Journal of Psychiatry. He is a former chair of the NIMH NPAS study section. He is a Fellow of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, an advisory board member for the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation and a standing member of the Institute of Medicine Neuro Forum.[1]


Dr. Dan Javitt, M.D. PhD, is a leading researcher in the field of schizophrenia today. He is the head of the Program in Cognitive Neuroscience and Schizophrenia at Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research in New York. His current research interests include Schizophrenia, Cognitive dysfunction, Event-related potentials, Psychophysiology, PCP/NMDA receptors. As someone who is conducting clinical trials concerning the effectiveness of glycine or glycine-like substances as a possible supplementary treatment for schizophrenia, Dr. Javitt kindly agreed to share some words about his research and the future of glycine treatments in an interview with[2]

Dr. Dan Javitt: The focus on NMDA receptors was a fortuitous choice. In 1983, when I was a first year resident, the number one drug of abuse in the country was phencyclidine, also known as “angel dust” or PCP. People who took PCP were known to develop symptoms that closely resembled schizophrenia, but which (fortunately) resolved over time. (Most of the time PCP was not taken intentionally, but was used by drug dealers to boost the effects of other drugs such as marijuana). One of the main researchers at Albert Einstein, where I did my residency, Stephen Zukin, was working on trying to understand how PCP worked in the brain. He had discovered a receptor called the PCP receptor and was trying to figure out how it worked in the brain. At that time, NMDA receptors had not been discovered. Most people assumed that the effects of PCP had something to do with dopamine. I was fortunate that NMDA receptors were discovered while I was doing my research studies in Dr. Zukin’s laboratory. We were one of the first groups to demonstrate that PCP receptors were, in fact, simply one part of the larger NMDA receptor complex, and that PCP produces its behavioral effects by blocking NMDA receptors. Later we demonstrated that glycine reverses the behavioral effects of PCP in rodents, leading us to believe that it might be an effective treatment for schizophrenia. [2]

Dr. JavittCourtesy of Esi-topics



Published in: on September 16, 2013 at 5:28 pm  Comments (4)  


 In Memory of the Legendary Historian and Politician of Iran & Azerbaijan, Baba Safari

Born in Ardabil on October 2, 1920, Passed away in Stockholm, Sweden at 8: 10 am on July 14, 2003 1930-1939: Elementary & High School (Taddayon in Ardabil & Daneshsara-Ye-Moghadamati College in Tabriz).
In schools, always, he ranked to one of the best ranks; he was honored many times by different prizes. 
1939: Diploma of Daneshsara in Tabriz.

1939: as a taeacher in Purandokht school in Ardabil.
1941: Baba Safari became as a director in Saadi school in Ardabil.
1943: Baba left Ardabil for Tehran.
1943-44: he worked in a school in Soraya school in downtown of Tehran.
1944: Second diploma in humanities and litrature.
1945: success in passing of the entrance exams in law school of University of Tehran.
1945: he began to study law
1946: his success in passing of entrance exams in Daneshsara-ye Alee’s College for his parallel studies in Philosophy, Pedagogy and Administration.
1948: graduated from the law school.
1949: graduated from the Daeshsar-e- Alee, where he studied his second education.
1949: appointed as a deputy director in ministry of culture in Ardabil.
1950: married with daughter of a well-known personality, who advocated for democracy in Ardabil, Hajji Agha Buyuk Vahebzadeh; his wife lived honestly and cooperative with him until his death in Sweden.
1951: as a director in Abou-Reyhan-Birouni high school in Tehran
1952-1953: Mayor of Ardabil.
1953: persecuted and followed by the military-coup backed Colonel Masoumi, the new Police chief of Ardabil after the coup de’etat in August 1953; the CIA and M16, the inteligent service of the great Britain worked together against the democartic elected government of Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh in Iran; Baba Safari was supported from highly respected clerics, people and merchants against any harms to him.
1953-1960: success for his Master degree in the field of administartion in Univerity of Tehran with cooperation of University of California. In an educational cooperation between Iran and Italy, he was accepted for continuing education in the field of public relation in Italy.
1961-1978: appointed as a senior assistant to deputy Prime minister in ogaf’s affairs (The Pilgrimage & Endowment Affairs; he served 17 years in Iran’s ogaf.
1978: retired.
1979: people of Ardabil invited him for candidacy in the new Majlis (Iran’s Parliament); over 28,000 voted for him, but the complexity of a combination between geography with politics in the new election prevented his success into parliament; votes of Ardabil were mixed with the villages and cities around Ardabil.
1985-2003: Baba Safari and his wife, Mrs. Vahebzadeh left Iran for Stockhom; they have 3 of their children in Sweden (the eldest son is living with his family in Tehran).

On Monday, at 8:10 am, July 14, 2003, Baba Safari, after the short period of illness (kidney and heart)passed away. His assistances to students and poor people are only very small parts of his works; he was an ocean of spirituality and love for all people. Baba Safari was well-known for his God-loving and his hospitality.

His Mazar is in the cemetery of Behesht-e-Zhara in Ardabil (special section for scientists and artists); many people are going there and remembering the father of history of Ardabil. Before his death, Mr.Baba Safari wished his grave to be put under the feet of studnets at the university of Ardabil; his hope was on the activities and awarenesses of students; he alwayes emphasized: the studnets are those people, who will change everything for the interests of our people; they are those, who will bring democracy, freedom and prosperity; they will make history.

Interesting Links: 

Published in: on September 26, 2006 at 6:21 pm  Leave a Comment